Joinery is a major task of woodworking that use to join wood pieces together to produce complex woodwork. There’re so many types of wood joints used for different woodworking activities.
Wood joints need to have good dimensional stability and strength to join wood parts together. I was curious to know, what are the strongest types of wood joints.
I have researched and here’re the 13 strongest wood joint types
- Mortise and Tenon joint
- Dovetail joint
- Dowel joint
- Miter joint
- Butt joint
- Lap joint
- Tongue and Groove joint
- Rabbet joint
- Pocket hole joint
- Finger joint (Box joint)
- Dado joint
- Bridle joint
- Biscuit joint
In this article, I’ll deeply discuss the strongest wood joint types with their properties, and the uses of each type of wood joint with pros and cons.
Also, I’ll talk about strong glue types you can use to build strong wood joints as well.
So, let’s get going!
1. Mortise and Tenon Joint
Mortise and Tenon joint is one of the strongest wood joint type used for construction. It is a classical wood joint method that use since the early days of woodworking.
Mortise means the cavity and tenon is the wood piece that perfectly fits into the mortise.
So, the Mortise and Tenon joint method simply means tapering one end of a wood piece insert into a cavity of another wood piece at 90-degrees.
In other words, the combination of Mortise and Tenon to foam a complex wood structure.
Mortise and Tenon joint is almost similar to the Tongue and Groove method except for the large wood square and receptacle seam that foam seamless joint.
Creating Mortise and Tenon wood parts is a skill that you should develop with practice.
Because you need to have precise measuring skills to develop the 90- degree angle connection between Mortise and Tenon.
With modern equipment, developing Mortise and Tenon parts has become much easier.
- Router – Make a square rectangular tenon by cutting excess wood
- Drill press/ plunge router – Make mortise by cutting a wood cavity
Mortise and Tenon joint is popular for building and framing hefty structures for many years because of their great strength.
Mortise and Tenon joint. #Throwback pic.twitter.com/Ez16GzrWj8— Kenyan Facts 🇰🇪 (@KResearcher) August 9, 2018
- Make tenon taller than its width. Both tenon and mortise relate to the thickness of the wood pieces.
- Make mortise slightly deeper than the length of the tenon (about 1/8”). This will give enough room to apply wood glue, a fastener between Mortise and Tenon.
- Make Tenon about a 1/3 thickness of the wood piece.
Uses Of Mortise and Tenon Joint
- Furniture making: To perpendicular wood parts of tables, chairs, and furniture legs along with other parts.
- Crafts making
- Able to withstand high stress
🪚CHALKBOARDS🪚— MissMarshall (@MissMarshallCDT) September 7, 2021
S5/6 Woodwork have some SERIOUS Mortise and Tenon game – NOT ONE GAP 🤩👏🏼 pic.twitter.com/ZeyjHAMpvF
2. Dovetail Joint
The dovetail joint is one of the strongest wood joint used to strengthen the corners by resisting the pulling apart.
It uses wedge-shaped (like the Dove’s tail) interlocking pieces that are commonly used in corners of the woodwork.
Wedge-shaped wood pieces should meet at a correct angle to fit precisely.
Dovetail joint can develop using hand techniques and machines. Machines that you can use to make Dovetail joint are,
- Dovetail Jig
Dovetail joint only needs wood glue and no fasteners and creating the joinery requires quality craftmanship than other wood joints.
Two wedge-shaped wood pieces combine using wood glue and clamp until they make a perfect joint by drying securely.
gm <3— dovetail 🪞 (14colors.eth) (@dovetailNFT) April 12, 2022
dovetail joint heart pic.twitter.com/Y7p3kKnJJO
- Investing in a Dovetail jig is worth it if you’re making many Dovetail joints because the machine can cut wedge pieces precisely and it is adjustable to make differently shaped cuts that fit perfectly together.
There’re main 3 types of Dovetail joints. They are,
- Through Dovetail Joint
- Half-Blind Dovetail Joint
- Sliding Dovetail Joint
The first dovetail joint is formed! Very exciting moment #CarpentryClass pic.twitter.com/28qFWMx7DF— Henry Lewis (@henrywlewis) October 5, 2021
Through Dovetail Joint
Through Dovetail is the most revered wood joint. It is classical and able to make extremely strong wood joints with a beautiful appearance.
Through Dovetail joint can make by using hand techniques and machines like Jig and router.
It adds touch to class to a wood piece by making a strong combination between them.
Particle board through dovetail joint. #winning pic.twitter.com/LyOhdSCvYw— ´96 Big Body Sittin’ on Chrome (@rivveting) July 30, 2015
Half-Blind Dovetail Joint
In a half-blinded dovetail joint, not both ends of wedge-shaped wood pieces are visible. Only one piece of wood is visible.
The best example of a half-blind Dovetail joint is the drawer front.
We don’t want to see the ends of both wood parts through Dovetail on the front-facing of the drawer.
So, only the front ends are visible, and you’ll be able to build a beautiful joint without compromising the strength.
The half-blind dovetail joint is a beautiful joint that you should practice which is able to build clean and beautiful wood joinery that adds a unique appearance to your woodworks.
Half blind dovetail pic.twitter.com/Ou6B42J956— Luke ‘8/4 Cherry’ Pighetti 💉💉💉 (@luke_pighetti) June 28, 2020
Sliding Dovetail Joint
The sliding Dovetail joint is like the locking Dado joint. Dovetail wood piece machined in the front face of other wood pieces while the pin is cut at the edge of combining piece.
It has many different uses and considers one of the versatile wood joinery methods you should practice.
This is a housed sliding dovetail. Perfect for joining legs to a pedestal. pic.twitter.com/GYIS4omS4t— BC Dyer (@versatileyankee) April 20, 2021
So, let’s have a look at the overall uses of Dovetail joints.
Uses Of Dovetail Joint
- Assemble sides of drawers
- Assemble corners of boxes and lids
3. Dowel Joint
Dowel joint is an almost similar joint type to the Mortise and Tenon joinery. It is a strong joint that fits into a socket to strengthen a joint.
In the Dowel joint both wood, pieces need to have sockets and it is a round cylindrical shaped item that goes through wood pieces at a perpendicular 90-degree angle.
Many of the wood joints can be further strengthened by applying the Dowel joint.
When you don’t need to visible steel look of nails or screw heads, better to go with a Dowel joint that is able to create a strong attachment with wood pieces and nails do.
It gives rustic look when it contrasts with the wood. For example, walnut Dowels in oak woodwork.
Dowel joints can make using hand techniques with pretty good craftsmanship and are able to develop using machines like,
- Power drill
Dowel joint: The end of a piece of wood is butted against another piece of wood. This is reinforced with dowel pins. #WOODWORKWEB pic.twitter.com/L0WfyyBChI— Woodwork Web (@woodworkweb) August 24, 2017
- Better to glue and clamp wood pieces that you wish to join using a Dowel joint and let it sit for about 24 hours before drilling the socket to make Dowel. This ensures the wood will not move separately when the Dowel is inserted through the wood pieces.
Uses Of Dowel Joint
- Wood constructions that nails and fasteners are not necessary to use
Another excellent dowel joint! #independentlearners pic.twitter.com/mcgE9dPY8B— SherburnDesignTech (@SHSDesignTech) January 18, 2014
4. Miter Joint
The Miter joint is a joinery method that which two ends of wood pieces are cut at angles and fitted together to get a complex item.
Miter means the angle. Most of the Miter joints are cut at 45-degree angles.
In a Miter joint two pieces of wood, ends are cut at a 45-degrees angle and combined to make a 90-degree joinery angle.
They are commonly used in frames and trims. When installing Miter joint first wood pieces are glued and then fastened together using nails and crews to the framing material.
For freestanding objects, first, you should glue wood pieces at the seam and additional nails use to fasten them permanently together.
Therefore, if you’re thinking to apply a Miter joint for a free-standing object like a picture frame, you need to have both wood glue and fasteners to combine them.
Because wood glue and nails/screws secure the Miter joint bond.
Because of using an adhesive like wood glue, Miter joint’s strength depends mostly on them.
If wood glue has securely tightened the wood pieces, the Miter joint is strong. But if wood glue is unable to tighten the wood pieces, the Miter joint is weak.
Even though most of the Miter joints are cut at 45-degree angles, you can develop the Miter joint into an octagonal mirror frame by cutting at 22.5-degree angles.
I’m working on a special purpose interlocking miter joint. Making it involves 9 separate cutting operations AFTER the wood is milled to size. Dimensions are critical. It has to glue up to exactly 90° & be perfectly straight its entire length. I had to draw a diagram. Hard maple. pic.twitter.com/aLCIuKgEzd— Alan Cooper (@MrAlanCooper) March 4, 2021
- Use Miter saw to create Miter joints without leaving any spaces between wood pieces. Miter saw is able to cut woods at precise angles.
- Make sure to hold the wood piece firmly against Miter saw to keep it moving while cutting.
Uses Of Miter Joint
- Creating picture frames for paintings
- Window trims
- Creating decorative frames
- Making outside edges of doors
- Small tables
Finish on that cove-cut miter joint. It’s the details folks! 🙂 pic.twitter.com/ZiKn8LvCRO— Keefrider Woodworking (@KeefriderCustom) June 30, 2020
5. Butt Joint
The butt joint is a strong easy joint that is almost similar to the Miter joint. The butt joint is the most basic joinery method.
Here, one piece of wood end directly contacts the end of another piece of wood at a correct angle.
The bonding area will be fastened using mechanical fasteners such as nails, and screws to preserve the joint.
The strength of the Butt joint depends on,
- The wood glue that holds wood pieces together
- Orientation of the wood pieces
Usually, the end of lumber is known as the “Butt”. So, contact between two ends of lumbers can be called a Butt joint.
They create corners by combining at a right angle. The butt joint is commonly used when installing trim.
Butt joints are commonly used for door and window trims that vertical trims Butt into the horizontal trim at the top of the door or window or horizontal windowsill.
In Mitered Butt joint, cutting edges of two wood pieces contact on opposite angles to make it look like a whole new piece.
To make a less visible Butt joint, you can make a cut on one wood piece at 45-degree angles and the other back cut at the same angle.
#buttjoint #tweet pic.twitter.com/3efD5pUsOk— call me OBO (@YourMove___) April 29, 2020
- To make the Butt joint strong use a chop saw to make precise cuts. Because it’s difficult to make cuts using a hand saw and a circular saw.
Uses Of Butt Joint
- Installing window trims
- Installing door trims
- Attic framing
- Picture frames
6. Lap Joint
The lap joint is a strong wood joint that uses for areas where two pieces of wood overLap. There’re main two types of Lap joints. They are,
- Full Lap joint
- Half Lap joint
When you’re cutting pieces to make Lap joint, make sure to lay them clearly and mark both surfaces of wood pieces at the same time to avoid confusion.
Making Joints— Aar Aalto (@aaraalto) November 7, 2020
I set aside an hour today to learn a little about Japanese joinery.
1. Lap Joint, “koshikaka-tsugi” pic.twitter.com/JhGbGY4P5a
Full Lap Joint
Full Lap joints are used in the areas where one wood piece overLaps with another and the contact area is fastened together using nails and screws.
It is mostly used in construction projects like structural frames in houses and erecting fences.
Full Lap joint reinforces other areas of the wood pieces when overLapping diagonal wood pieces with vertical wood pickets in a gate.
Baby’s first lap joint pic.twitter.com/OCWbOXcwbl— Peter ‘Moderna Boosted’ Bajurny 🔰🐈🚰💉💉💉 (@fishmanpet) January 17, 2022
Half Lap Joint
A half Lap joint is stronger than a full Lap joint because it is created by overlapping two pieces of wood that are notched and fitted together at notched areas.
They fit smoothly one over another because of the notched areas. Therefore, Half Lap joints are also known as notched Lap joints.
The strength of the half Lap joint depends on the depth of notches. This varies according to the type of the project as well.
Check out the half lap joint on the base tho pic.twitter.com/nZD9EGa73t— startup ceo screaming at employees in a wework (@moonpolysoft) October 13, 2019
Uses Of Lap Joints
- House frames
- Structural frames to reinforce wood pieces without making them warp or sag
- Erecting fences
7. Tongue and Groove Joint
The tongue and Groove joint is one of the strongest wood joint that provides adjoining surface areas.
It is used when two boards of squares joining to one another along a long edge. The tongue of each wood runs along the other side.
One wood piece Butt the joint together and tighten with fasteners such as nails and screws.
Nails are the grooved side of the other board which is fitted over the tongue to conceal the nails. This is known as blind nailing because surfaces are unblemished by steel heads of nails.
The tongue and Groove joint is so useful when gluing the joint. It is used to install materials that lie flat such as hardwoods and breadboards on walls.
Here’re the machines that use to craft DIY tongues,
- Table saw
Tongue and Groove Joint can use to make square joints by cutting a groove into the surface of the board while milling the tongue on the edge.
Nowadays, tongues and grooves come with already cut surfaces and you just have to fit them together to get a nice and smooth wood joint.
- Install Tongue and Groove tightly without making any gaps. You can use a rubber mallet to install them perfectly.
- Hardwood floors use nails that sets boards snugly together and insert the nails smoothly at the same time.
Uses Of Tongue and Groove Joint
- Beadboard installation
- High traffic flat surfaces
8. Rabbet Joint
Rabbet joint is mainly used for cabinetry applications. It is almost similar to the Dado joint because Rabbet is a Dado cut along the board edge.
It is created by forming a recess into the edges of the wood pieces.
In terms of its appearance, it’s similar to Tongue and Groove joint but here is the Rabbet joint we only make cuts from one side instead of two.
Rabbet joint is a strong assembling joint that uses for the back of cabinets and other assembling tasks.
You need to have a clear understanding of how to cut Rabbet to use them.
The rabbet joint is stronger than the Butt joint. It fairly uses nails or screws.
The Rabbet joint method, allows a flat piece of wood such as the back of the cabinet to flush with both sides for a smooth seamless finish.
- Use glue to make a tight and strong Rabbet joint.
Uses Of Rabbet Joint
- The back edge of cabinetry
- Box-shaped wood structures
- Installation of glass pane around the wood frame edge
9. Pocket Hole Joint
The pocket hole joint is one of the strongest wood joints consisting of a Butt joint with pocket hole screws. Pocket hole joint requires two drilling operations. They are,
- Counterbore the pocket itself. This takes wood pieces with a screw head.
- Drill a pilot hole with a centerline same as the pocket hole
The pilot hole is important to drill through one piece of wood into an adjoining wood piece.
Two different sizes of drill bits are required, or you can use a drill bit that is specially made to perform this function with a single task.
Pocket hole jig is the machine that we use for the drilling operations. Pocket hole jig (Kreg jig) makes pocket holes precisely to the correct depth and correct angle.
Usually, holes are drilled at a 15-degree angle. wood glue is used to strengthen the pocket hole joint.
Mortise and Tenon joint is much stronger than pocket hole joint.
- Because Kreg Jig costs a lot of money. Better to use Mortise and Tenon joint instead of pocket hole joint for less money while gaining a stronger joint.
Uses Of Pocket Hole Joint
- Cabinet doors
- Face frames
- Picture frames
- Door jambs
With a little help I got the frame for upgraded shelf installed. Did a lap joint and dowel to get the 10’ I wanted. Pocket hole joint on the back shelf supports into recycled back piece from former shelf. Cleaned up, flipped, stained, and poly applied to give a nicer look. pic.twitter.com/0Tl9Ys6Ldz— Rob Wright (@RfwrightLSL) March 19, 2022
10. Finger Joint (Box Joint)
The finger joint also known as the box joint is the best alternative wood joint for the Dovetail joint. It works at the edges of wood pieces to combine them together at a right seamless perpendicular 90-degree angle.
Wood pieces combine through symmetrical rectangular slots that fit with each other perfectly. You only have to apply wood glue to make the box joint tighten to get a solid corner.
Box joint is easy to create, not unlike the Dovetail joint while providing great strength. It works well with plywood as well.
But the Dovetail joint is stronger than the Finger joint (box joint).
Here’re machines that are required to make box joint Finger-like shapes.
- Table saw with Dado blades
- Router with a simple jig
First test of the box joint jig. The joint is pretty nice, but I got the pieces aligned incorrectly pic.twitter.com/w0cVk9elYN— Emily Velasco (@MLE_Online) February 23, 2020
- Sometimes Finger joint (box joint) is better than the Dovetail joint because of having 90-degree or 180-degree angles rather than Dovetail’s wedge angle.
- However, the box joint is also known as one of the strongest wood joints in woodworking.
Uses Of Finger Joint (Box Joint)
- Join wider slats
- Join solid wood panels
- Storage boxes
- Construct other box shapes
Box joint came out better than I had feared! pic.twitter.com/HPdCVdrSOu— Dustin Lang (@dstndstn) February 2, 2022
11. Dado Joint
Dado joint means a square grooved slot on one board combined with another board. Dado joint is similar to the Tongue and Groove joint, but Dado joins cut across the wood grain, not like grooves that cut along the direction of the wood grain.
It is mainly used to join plywood.
In Dado joint groove is cut wider in order to accept the thickness of the joining wood piece.
Trying a new kind of joint which I have never done. I believe Americans call it a “dado” joint. It might be called a “trench” joint in Europe? pic.twitter.com/VNhG4GPyOI— Duane Wingett 💉💉💉😷 (@dibley1973) October 28, 2017
- You can Rabbet the shelves and other woodworks to fit the Dado. This kind of joint is called Rabbet and Dado joint, which is a combination of wood joints.
Uses Of Dado Joint
- Joining plywood
- Attach bookcase carcass
- Furniture making
- Joining fiberboards and pressed products
12. Bridle Joint
The bridle joint is a strong joint that is known as an alternative wood joint to Mortise and Tenon joint.
In Bridle joints, instead of cutting wood pieces, woodworkers create a lengthy wood piece that fits the grooved piece seamlessly.
Bridle joints create the correct angle to make the joint from three surfaces and they’ll hold wood glue and other adhesives well to build a strong wood joint.
In corners, the Bridle joint holds two surfaces by forming a corner.
The bridle joint provides good compressive strength and is resistant to racking. Better to apply mechanical faster (nails or screws) to strengthen up the joint.
Most importantly, Without destroying the integrity of the joint, you can remove material from Bridle joint wood pieces.
As you can see Bridle joint is a versatile wood joint with lots of excellent woodworking qualities. Therefore, it is popular among woodworkers.
Can we just take time to appreciate the accuracy and fit in this bridle joint from Katie in S4 Design. Proud teacher moment 🥰#rosshallacademy#breakingstereotypes pic.twitter.com/F7Xl2zDo9q— Miss Edgar Tech (@MissEdgarTech) November 10, 2021
- There’re some variations of Bridle joint known as, T-Bridle, Mitered Bridle, and double Bridle joints which use for stretcher bars
Uses Of Bridle Joint
- Bed frames
- House a rail upright (legs)
13. Biscuit Joint
The biscuit joint is a strong nontraditional woodworking joint.
In the Biscuit joint, a wooden oval-shaped piece is glued into two crescent-shaped wood holes.
It is useful for joining boards along the edges similar to the Tongue and Groove joint.
The biscuit joint is a modern wood joint that is also known as the robust version of the Butt joint. Both ends of wood pieces are cut to make a small wafer which acts as the connection between them.
After the addition of wood glue, it starts to swell until the gaps get filled.
Here’re the tools and machines that need to make Biscuit joints.
- Biscuit joiner
- Plate joiner
In the Dowel joint, we drill holes to put wooden pins instead of using Biscuit slots like Biscuit joints. So, the Dowel joint is a modification of the Biscuit joint.
I’m going to add a biscuit joint to increase surface area for the glue and strengthen the bond. pic.twitter.com/4VgkRip8o2— competentposter (@CompetentPoster) September 16, 2021
- Biscuit joint is made of compressed dried wood, such as beech.
- Make sure to locate the mortise correct distance from the wood joint in both wood pieces.
- Biscuit is thin and it’s so hard to place it in correct alignment.
Uses Of Biscuit Joint
- Create tabletops
- Cabinet carcasses
Those are the 13 strongest wood joint types and their uses with unique characteristics.
So, let’s find out what is the strongest wood glue to make the strongest wood joint.
Strongest Glue for Strongest Wood Joint
To make the strongest wood joint you need to have a wood glue that holds well onto the wooden surface.
It should work well with wood joints to improve their strength and reinforce the entire woodwork.
Here’re the best strongest wood glue that use to make the strongest wood joint,
- Gorilla wood glue
- Elmer wood glue
- Titebond 1414 Ultimate wood glue
- Krazy wood glue
By using the above wood glue products, you’ll be able to make your wood joint much stronger and improve the durability of the furniture or woodwork.
Wood glue works pretty well on both painted and stained surfaces.
Shaun made this Avery extension with Gorilla Wood Glue in every joint. Great project Shaun! #DIY pic.twitter.com/nFDbY7OJCI— Gorilla Glue UK (@GorillaGlueUK) October 17, 2017
Did I cover all you wanted to know about: Strongest Wood Joint Types
In this article, we have deeply discussed the 13 strongest wood joint types with their characteristic qualities, properties, and uses with pros and cons.
Also, we have discussed some pro tips for each wood joint which are additionally helpful for a successful woodworking project.
According to my experience, the strength of the wood joint depends on the application that we’re going to use. You need to have a clear understanding of wood joints and what joints fit perfectly for each situation.
Furthermore, we have answered what wood glue you should select to make the strongest wood joint possible.
Hope you have gained good knowledge about the strongest wood joint with their uses.
So, make sure to use the things you learned from this article when you’re working with a wood joint. Have fun in woodworking!